Volume 1, Number 5
Myco-chemical and Proximate Composition of Selected Mushrooms in Lapai Niger State Nigeria
In recent times mushrooms assumed greater importance in the diet of both rural and
urban population because they are delicacies. The bulk of mushrooms consumed
are hunted from the wild, the practice which often associated with some degree of
negativity and fatality since poisonous ones could be inadvertently picked and
eaten. This study thereforeinvestigated myco-chemical, proximate minerals and
vitamins present in three selected and identified mushroom: Macrolepiotaprocera,
Pleurotus roseus and Cantherelle cibarius collected from wild inLapai Niger
State.The samples were sundried and ground into powder and sieved.
Myco-chemical, proximate, minerals and vitamins analyses were done. The results
revealed the presence of alkaloid, flavonoid and saponin in all the three samples
The results on the proximate composition of the three mushrooms sampled revealed
that carbohydrate content was significantly (p<0.05) the highest food content. It
was 30.50% in M. procera, 28.8% in P.roseusand 29.2% in C.cibarius.
Crude protein obtained were 9.8, 11.43 and 10.2% in M. procera, P. roseusand
C. cibarius, respectively. However, the mineral composition analysis showed that
the three samples were very rich in potassium and sodium but poor in cobalt. The
samples were also rich in vitamin A. M. procera has the highest percentage
moisture content (18.01%) which was significantly different (P<0.05) from others.
Ash content and crude fibre of the three mushrooms were significantly different
(p<0.05). The fat content was generally low with M.procera having (11.50%),
P. roseus (13.65%) and C. cibarius(12.10%). M. procerahas the highest content
of potassium (6.80 mg L
) while C. cibarius was lowest (5.40 mg L
mushrooms hold tremendous potentials in contributing to the protein, vitamin and
mineral element needs of the people. Therefore, their commercial production and
consumption especially those on low fat dietary food should be encouraged and
their use as raw materials to the pharmaceutical industries is recommended.
Effect of Wrapping Materials on Myco Flora Growth, Proximate Composition and Shelf Life of Solid PAP Sold in Lapai, Niger State, Nigeria
Effect of wrapping materials on mycoflora growth and proximate composition of
pap, solid gel-like traditional fermented starchy food item producedfrom maize
(Zea mays) was investigated. Proximate and microbial analysis of freshly prepared
pap was done before storage for 10 days. The samples were wrapped in banana
leaves (Musaparadiosica) and nylon. The proximate and microbial analyses were
conducted during storage at day 3, 5 and 10. The results showed that fresh pap have
percentage moisture (4.03±0.04), ash (4.08±0.01), crude fibre (3.04±0.01), crude
fat (0.90±0.05), protein (1.99±0.01) and carbohydrate (85.96±0.01). The proximate
compositions of pap wrapped with nylon were significantly (p<0.05) higher than
pap wrapped with leaf except for carbohydrate content which was significantly
(p<0.05) higher in pap wrapped with leaf than nylon at day 3, 5 and 10 of storage.
The isolated fungi in pap included Mucor species, Aspergillusniger, A. Flavusand
Penicilliumnotatum. On day 1 Penicilliumnotatum and Mucor species were not
isolated from pap wrapped with nylon and plastic containers. The pap wrapped with
nylon has thehighest percentage occurrence of Aspergillus flavus and Mucor
species on day 1, 3 and 5 (50.00, 25.00, 31.80, 45.45 and 50.00%) while pap
wrapped with leaf has highest occurrence of Aspergillus niger,Mucorspecies on
day 1 and10. It was revealed that storage of pap led to decrease in nutritional
content and increase in microbial growth with increased storage time. However, this
study revealed that the pap is less susceptible to microbial attack and nutrients are
best retained when nylon are used to wrap the pap than leaf.
Volume 1, Number 4
Phylogeny Between Wild Populations of Oreochromis niloticus and Tilapia zilliUsing Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Markers
The phylogeny between wild Oreochromis niloticus (O. niloticus) and
Tilapia zilli(T. zilli) species collected from New Bussa, Niger State was
carried out using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD)
markers. Four RAPD primers were used for the DNA amplification which
generated a total of 55 band loci ranging from 750-7126 bp for both wild
Oreochromis niloticus and Tilapia zilli. The UPGMA dendrogram
divides the populations into two main clades, the first clade comprises
members of O. niloticusand the second clade comprises members of
T. zilli. The dendrogram revealed a distant genetic evolutionary
relationship between wild O. niloticusand T. zilliwhich reaffirm the
placing of the two species in different genera.
Genetic Variability of Wild and Cultured Populations of Tilapia zilliby Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Markers
The analysis of genetic variability between wild and cultured Tilapiazilli
(T. zilli) species collected from New Bussa, Niger State was carried out
using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Four
RAPD primers were used for the DNA amplification which generated a
total of 55 band loci ranging from 750-7126 bp for both wild and cultured
Tilapiazilli. The average percentage of polymorphic loci for wild and
cultured Tilapia zilliwas 30.8 and 65.63%, respectively. The percentage
of molecular variance within and among species for wild and cultured
Tilapiazilliwas 70 and 30%, respectively, indicating fairly high genetic
variation within species and high genetic variation among species. The
PhiTP value further affirmed high genetic variation among wild and
cultured Tilapiazilli having the PhiTP to be 0.013 and data value to
0.281,PhiPT (0.302)>data (0.001), shows significant difference. The
wild T. zillishows decrease genetic variability and diversity, therefore,
urgent step need to be taken to avert its risk of extinction.
Volume 1, Number 3
CHARACTERIZATION OF THE BLOWFLY MAGGOT AN01
Maggots of the blowfly have been used for the treatment of antibiotics resistant wounds. The total protein concentration, isolation and characterization of biologically active proteins and peptides from Maggot saliva were determined by Bradford and SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis. The total protein concentration was 430.51 mg/ml. SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis of Maggot Excretion/Secretion revealed the presence of 5 proteins and peptides ranging from 17KDa to 121KDa. These results are obtained side by side with a proteins and peptides standard reference. The bands of proteins isolated were Beta galactosidase 121 KDa, Glycosylated bovin serum albumin 93 KDa, Ovalbumin 40KDa, Cardonic anhydrase 36 KDa, Beta lactoglobin 23 KDa and Lysozyme 17KDa.
RELATIVE ABUNDANCE AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES
Maggots have long been used as a traditional way of cleansing and healing gangrenous wounds. Blowflies’ abundance and antibacterial activities were determined using baited traps and agar cup plate technique. The family calliphoridae was the most abundant in all the sites sampled. The total of 5755 calliphorid flies captured belonged to two genera, Lucinia robineau (81.49%) and Chrysomya megacephala (18.51%). There was a significant difference in their abundance and a positive correlation between abundance and the two species with relative humidity and rainfall and a negative correlation with temperature. The isolates from infected wounds and whitlows were Pseudomonas earoginosa, Staphylococus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Antibacterial susceptibility screening showed that, the maggot saliva/excretion was able to inhibit the growth. The zones of inhibition recorded was Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 24mm while Ampiclox (control) 37mm; Staphylococcus aureus was 20mm while Ampiclox (control) 31mm; Klebsiella pneumoniae was 27mm while Ampiclox (control) 39mm and Staphyloccocus epidermidis was 24mm while Ampiclox (control) 28mm. The result of the antibacterial susceptibility screening also revealed that, the greatest effect of the maggot saliva/excretion was obtained against K. pneumoniae while the lowest was obtained against S. aureus. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was between 40mg/ml and 60mg/ml while Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) screening showed that Pseudomonas earoginosa, Staphylococus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphyloccocus epidermidis have the same bactericidal concentrations of 60mg/ml each while Ampiclox (control) had 40mg/ml.
MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSIONS OF ENTROPY GENERATION AN03
The investigations are performed on thermodynamic second law on steady flow of an incompressible variable viscosity electrically conducting fluid in a channel with permeable walls using convective surface boundary conditions. The non-linear differential equations are solved analytically. Homotopy analysis method is used to determine the analytical expressions of dimensionless fluid velocity and dimensionless temperature profiles. We also derived the analytical expressions of the entropy generation rate and Bejan number. The graphical representations of temperature, velocity, entropy generation rate, Bejan number are also presented and discussed quantitatively. The Homotopy analysis method contains the convergence control parameter so it can be extended to solve the strongly non-linear boundary value problem in other MHD flow problem. The flow systems were controlled by the regulated values of thermophysical parameters. This method can be easily extended to solve the other non-linear initial and boundary value problems in physical, chemical and biological sciences
IMPROVED UPPER BOUND ON THE NUMBER AN04
Given a simple graph on n vertices, currently 1.7159n is the best upper bound on the number of minimal dominating sets. This bound has been improved for some classes of graphs. In this article, the bound 1.7159n is improved for the class of simple loop-free connected graphs having pendant vertices, leading up to the corresponding results for simple loop-free connected hypergraphs.
Volume 1, Number 2
PROPAGATION OF WEAK DISCONTINUITIES
The transport equations representing the rate of change of discontinuities in the normal derivatives of the flow variables are obtained along bicharacteristic curves in the characteristic manifold of the differential equations governing the flow of a chemically reacting gas. The propagation of these weak discontinuities is discussed in particular cases of plane, cylindrical and spherical geometry. The effects of the chemical reactions, the magnitude of initial discontinuity, the initial curvature of the wave front and the upstream flow Mach number on the propagation of these weak discontinuities are investigated.
SONIC CONDITIONS FOR SELF-SUSTINED DETONATION WAVE
The generalized sonic conditions for a three-dimensional unsteady self-sustained detonations wave are derived by defining sonic locus as a limiting characteristic surface of the governing hyperbolic equations embedded in the reactive zone at a finite distance behind the shock. Two compatibility conditions are derived by considering Whitham’s shock ray co-ordinate system as a front attached co-ordinate, which are necessary to determine the motion of both the lead shock and the sonic surface. The domain of influence of reactive zone is bounded by two surfaces; the lead shock surface and the trailing characteristic surface. The geometry of these two surfaces plays an important role in the underlying dynamics.
ANALYTICAL EXPRESSIONS OF THE VARIABLE VISCOSITY
In this paper, we investigate first and second law of thermodynamic analysis of variable viscosity hydromagnetic, which has Couette flow with permeable walls. The analytical expressions of the dimensionless velocity and dimensionless temperature are derived by using the Homotopy analysis method. Our analytical expression of the dimensionless velocity is compared with the exact solution and a satisfactory agreement is noted. We also derive the analytical expressions for skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number, Entropy generation rate, Bejan number. The HAM contains the convergence control parameter, so we can easily extend to solve other MHD fluid flow problem in engineering and science.
USE OF PROTEIN ISOLATE FROM FISH WASTE
Fish processing is a crucial sector to meet the nutrient needs for humans, but it generates a significant amount of the estimated 50% of total waste. It follows the same time a problem of dumping of waste in different environments which increases environmental pollution and in particular the water environment. Our work aims to study the physicochemical quality of sardine waste (edges, heads and guts). Then, we seek to exploit these coproducts as medium culture for microorganisms such as Lactobacillus and E. coli. In this case, two universal mediums were prepared with the isolate obtained from fish in the place of peptones of the conventional mediums. The physicochemical analyzes showed that the isolate obtained has a high biological value (rich in essential amino acids). The results indicate that the use of this isolate must be accompanied with other essential elements of culture (vitamin compounds, essential amino acids, minerals) as growth factors to optimize the growth of bacteria involved. This work allowed us to have a recovery method that reduces the risk of pollution caused by discharges of different fish processing industries and we contribute to the development of biotechnology.
A GREAT DISCOVERY ALLERGY AND ASTHMA
Background. Allergic asthma and rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, urticaria and food allergy are genetic diseases of infants and children. Several investigators have provided evidence for a genetic localization for atopy. Babies of atopic parents are at high risk of developing atopic diseases, however the phenotypic expression of such diseases varies widely, being very mild in some infants and children, severe and frustrating in many, even life-threatening in others, being also common,disabilitating, and chronic.
Volume 1, Number 1
Transfer of Sodium from Plasma to Milk in Lactating Cows
An investigation was carried out in Livestock station at Khizarabad, Sargodha Pakistan. An experiment was conducted to determine the sodium status in blood plasma and milk of lactating cows in four sampling phases (October, November, December and January). Milk and blood plasma samples were collected in four sampling phases of winter seasons of 2014. Transfer of minerals from blood plasma to milk possessed many effects on ruminants so there is need to elaborate translocation quantity of minerals to overcome diseases related to ruminants.
Transfer of Sodium from soil to forage
An experiment was conducted to determine the sodium status of soil and forage during four sampling periods (October, November, December and January) in livestock station at Khizarabad, Sargodha, Pakistan. Forage plants and soil samples were gathered in four sampling periods of winter seasons of 2014. Highest sodium level in soil (98.496 mg/kg) was found in October and forage sample show highest sodium (0.0802%) level in October. Similarly lowest sodium level in soil (64.584 mg/kg) and forage (0.300%) samples was also found in same sampling period of January. Results of the present study showed that sodium concentrations in soil and forage samples were higher than critical levels. Transfer of mineral from soil to forage showed serious effect on plants and also on ruminant which consumed these plants so Further studies are required to find out the exact requirement of minerals for the area under study for forage productions and to cope with diseases in small ruminants.
Preliminary Study of Physiology and Biochemistry of Root, Fruit and Leaves
Medicinal plants are very important in all over the world to cope against different types of diseases. Medicinal plants are utilized as folk medicine to heal injuries and cure diseases. Therefore, the aim of present study was to compare the biochemical and physiological attributes of root, leaves, fruits and seed of olive (Olea europaea) and Amaltas (Casia fistula). In this regard, different parts of olive plants such as root, fruit, seed and leaves were collected from soon valley and different parts of amaltas were collected from University of Sargodha and analyzed. Biochemical and Physiological attributes such as protein, amino acid, total sugar, reducing, non-reducing sugar and different mineral ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+ were analysed. In olive and amalatas plants, sodium and potassium were observed high in fruits, roots, leaves and seeds. The presence of these minerals helps in plant growth and fruits production. Concentration of reducing and non-reducing sugar was observed high in leaves and fruits of olives and amaltas and minimum in seed of olives and root of amaltas. The protein contents were observed high in root of olives and minimum in seed of olive plant while maximum in leaves and fruit of amalats. Potassium and calcium contents were observed high in seed of olive plants while calcium were observed high in leaves of olive plants. The comparison of physiological and biochemical status of root, leaves, fruits and seeds of olive plants indicated the important values of different parts of the olive and amaltas and their significance. This study helps to recommend the different parts about their medicinal values.
The environmental factors influencing the development of atopic diseases
Allergic asthma and rhinitis, atopic dermatitis (AD), urticarial and gastrointestinal allergy, are common diseases of infants and children. It was recently estimated that 14% of children suffer from AD, 8% from food allergy, and 12% from asthma (1, 2). The cumulated incidence of these diseases in adolescents has been estimated between 25-35%, while the prevalence is about 20% (3). The phenotypic expression of these illnesses varies extensively, being very mild in some cases, severe in many, and even life threatening in others. Specific IgE antibodies to foods and positive challenge tests to a number of food allergens are frequently present in children with these disorders. Cow’s milk (CM) appears to be the most common offending food both in gastrointestinal (vomiting, diarrhea, etc.) and in cutaneous manifestations (urticaria and AD). About 0.5-7% of infants suffer from more or less adverse reactions to CM (4).Babies particularly of atopic parents is at high risk of developing atopic diseases, therefore they are defined as at-risk babies (5-7). Atopy can interfere with a child’s life at any age level, with varying severity. Intractable diarrhea due to CM allergy (CMA) and AD are the most frequent in infants, where the clinical manifestations are more severe than in older children. Respiratory allergy and bronchial asthma can be serious illnesses in younger as well as in older children. The desire to understand the multifaceted problem of atopy has stimulated the clinicians and academicians’ imagination for decades. Therefore, interest has been focused on methods for the prediction and prevention of atopy (5-9). Prevention of IgE-mediated diseases relies on the skill necessary to overcome the natural forces unceasingly working to sensitize humans to
produce IgE antibodies. The phenotypic expression of allergic disease ensues from an elaborate interrelationship between the atopy-prone genetic constitution of a child and the experienced environment that surrounds it. Prevention of atopy could potentially be met by selectively interfering with the genetic and environmental factors that appear to be responsible in concert for the final phenotypic expression of atopy. Human milk has been for centuries the only way of feeding human neonates. Since the beginning of this century, CM formulas have become a common breast milk substitute when mother’s milk was not available. During this century and especially in the last decade other formulas have been developed in order to reduce the antigen load and therefore the risk of sensitization. In this paper, we will briefly summarize recent data on the environmental factors triggering atopy. In addition, we will report recent knowledge on atopy prevention, also reviewing the so-called hypoallergenic formulas.