Nutritional, Therapeutic and Food Applications of Jamun
Syzygium cumini commonly known as jamun, jambolan, black plum and jambol etc., is underutilized fruit in various parts of world. It has been known for its medicinal properties and is considered as one of the most important traditional medicines for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Besides it, this fruit is used for the treatment of diseases like inflammation, ulcers and diarrhea. But it is rich source of nutrients, particularly phytochemicals such as anthocyanins, glucoside, ellagic acid, isoquercetin, kaemferol and myrecetin. The seeds are claimed to contain alkaloid, jambosine, and glycoside jambolin or antimellin, which are effective for diabetic patients. Instead of medicinal properties it can also be used in food processing. But very less findings regarding its processing and food uses are available. Different products like jam, jelly, squash, juice, nectar can be prepared by this fruit which are rich source of antioxidants and nutrients. So it is the need of time that instead of using the extracts for medicinal purposes, jamun should be used in the form of food products. In the current review, health benefits, medicinal and food uses of jamun have been briefly discussed.
Effect of Buttermilk on the Physico-chemical Attributes of Muffins
Buttermilk is a byproduct of butter obtained from churning of sweet and sour cream into butter. From many years, buttermilk has been underestimated due the byproduct of dairy industry. But now, it is consider as an important product because it has strong flavour, emulsifying properties, presence of large amount of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) of milk and also rich in membrane components like phospholipids, sphingolipids, glycoproteins, specific proteins and some other minor components. The present study was done to prepare the buttermilk containing muffins by complete or partially substituted of water with buttermilk by adding different percentages (0, 50 and 100%) of buttermilk (Sweet and Sour). The buttermilk containing Muffins then analyzed for the physico-chemical properties for 7 days storage study and analysis done at 0, 3, 5 and 7 days and mineral profile and sensory evaluation at 0 day. The mean value for proximate analysis moisture ranged (17.68-32.52%) which describes the decreasing trend, ash (0.71-0.98%), crude protein (6.85-9.94%), crude fat (20.24-26.93%), crude fiber (0.51-0.74%) and NFE (29.70-53%) increased with passage of time. Minerals profile values include Ca, K and Na which are 155.67-173 mg/100g, 577.23-594.97 mg/g and 143.50- 147.27 mg/g respectively. After texture analysis of muffins it was observed that the hardness of muffin decreased by increasing the percentage of buttermilk which is 43.66-65.60. Furthermore, in the sensory properties of buttermilk containing Muffins M2 (contained 100% sour buttermilk) were preferred by the sensory panel due to the attractive characteristic like color, flavor, texture, tenderness, moistness, shape and over all acceptability. Hence, buttermilk can increase the flavor softness, color, texture of the muffins.
Evaluation of Tomato Waste Extract as Natural Source of Antioxidant in Cookies
Oxidation cause deterioration of food color, flavor, texture and also results in nutrient degradation. Tomato peel and seeds are the major bio-waste of tomato processing industry; these are natural rich sources of bioactive substances that play a significant role in prevention of diseases. The proposed work was to utilize tomato waste (peel and seeds) extract (TWE) as natural source of antioxidant in cookies at three levels (0.1, 0.12 and 0.14%) and evaluated, rancidity, physical, and organoleptic properties of cookies at storage interval of 0,15, 30 and 45 days. The results indicated that TWE was high in phenols (48.35±1.25 mg GAE/100g), flavonoids (46.88±1.20 mg RE/100g), lycopene content (46.16±0.64 mg/100 g) and also had high DPPH value (92.3±0.3%). Also, the data demonstrated that TWE had significant effect on, rancidity, physical and organoleptic properties of cookies from T0 to T3 as function of treatment. During storage, TWE had non-significant effect on physical properties of cookies. The results also showed that TWE had good inhibition effect on rancidity of the cookies. The inhibition effect of TWE at level of 0.14% was equivalent to the effect of BHT at 0.01%. Organoleptic performance exhibited that the cookies with 0.12% TWE were the most acceptable. Finally, addition of TWE as source of natural antioxidant can be recommended to improve shelf life of food products.
Safety Evaluation, Health Risk Assessment and its Source Appointment in Drinking Water
United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and Pakistan Safe Drinking Water Act (PSDWA) acknowledge adequate access to potable water as a basic necessity of human beings. To provide ample assess of adequate water to its inhabitants, Government of Pakistan (GOP) designed a project titled “Clean Drinking Water for All (CDWA)” in which it was decided to install water purification plants in each Union Council of Pakistan. Current study was designed to assess the safety status of drinking water of water purification plants of Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan. The study was further planned to identify potential sources of contamination and to direct policy makers for direct future investments. It concluded that factors like defective/leaked taps, presence of garbage and standing water beside sampling sites were among the common sources of microbial contamination across the study sites. On the other hand, 73% of sampling sites were classified as ‘high risk’ for microbial contamination.Among heavy metals, drinking water was found to be heavily contaminated with Pb and Fe.However, Cd wasn’t detected across the study site. Based on heavy metals concentration, chronic daily intake (CDI) and hazard quotient (HQ) was calculated. The values of CDI were in the order of Fe>Cu>Zn>Mn>Pb>Cr>Ni>Zn>Cd.The values of HQ were Key words: Drinking water, heavy metals, microbial contamination, risk assessment, Pakistan